"History of Samori Toure": Notes on Amadu Kurubari's narrative of 1899/1990 from Delafosse’s 1901 Jula Grammar

At the turn of the 19th century in what is now southern Côte d’Ivoire, a West African trader sat down with the French colonial officer and linguist, Maurice Delafosse. “This White man, while residing in Kofidugu, beseeched me to tell him a tale: the tale of Alimami Samori Ibn-Lafia. I told it to him.”

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The expression "Pin ni pan" in Bambara and Maninka

With the expression pínní pán' it seems that we have a similar case where words featuring the expressive element of /p/ are used idiomatically to refer to denotationally unspecified actions associated with effort. The closest parallel that comes to mind in English is an expression like "blah-blah-blah" though it isn't grammaticalized in the same way or to the same extent.

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